Ecology and interspecific interaction and its types

Ecology and interspecific interaction and its types and interspecific interaction, hi guys in this article we know about Ecology and interspecific interaction between different organisms and their inter Independence and several phenomenons.

interspecific interaction introduction

 Ecology and intra specific interaction  have no species can survive in isolation, interaction or Association between two different species is known as interspecific interaction.

Every geographical area is with more than one species whitch show interaction and association and inter-ndependence between different species.

Ecology/ interspecific interaction and its types

Ecology/ interspecific interaction and its types

types of interspecific interaction

generally interspecific interaction is categorised into 3 category

1) positive interaction(+)
2) negative interaction(_)
3) neutral interaction(0)

1) positive interaction:- that types of interaction in which members of one or both the interacting species are benefited and not harm to each other.

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■2) negative interaction :- that types of interaction in which members of one or both the interacting species are harmed.

■3) neutral interaction:- that types of interaction in which neither of species is benefited or harmed.

types of positive interaction

There are main two types of positive interaction according to inter independence of organism and sharing of their shelter and food.

1) mutualism
2) commensalism

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mutualism:- types of positive interaction in which both the interacting species favour the growth and survival of each other and both benefited. Further mutualism is two types:-

1) proto-cooperation:- mutualism in which both the species are mutually benefited to each others but their Association is facultative or optional and so can live separately.
Example 1) Hermit crab and sea anemone
2) Tick bird and rhinoceros

2) symbiosis:- types of mutualism in which both the species are mutually benefited but their Association is obligatory so the partner cannot survive when isolated.

Example
1) termite and Trichonympha
2) Ruminant and ruminococcus bacteria
3) lichen algae fungi association
4) mycorrhizae -fungi and roots of higher plant
5) legume plant and rhizobium bacteria

Commensalism:- types of positive interaction in which a smaller partner called commensal is benefited while the larger partner called host is neither benefited not harmed.

Example
1) orchids as epiphytes
2) barnacles as epizoan on whale
3) sucker fish and shark
4) clown fish and sea anemone

types of negative interaction

1) predation
2) parasitism
3) competition
4) amensalism

1) predation:- types of negative interaction in which larger species called Predator attack kills and feed on the smaller species is called prey. It also help in biological control in which members of harmful species are regulated by the members of useful Predator species

Example
1) control of opuntia by Australian cochineal insects
2) red locusts in Mauritius by indian mynah
3) control of mosquito larvae by gambusia fish
4) all carnivorous animals lion tiger

2) parasitism :- types of negative interaction in which are smaller partner called parasite is benefited and derive food and shelter from the body of larger partner is called host. The parasite may be of following types:-

1)Ectoparasite:- it is found on the outer surface of host’s body.
Example

A) sea lampreys
B) leeches
C) head lice
D) bed bugs
E) ticks in skin

2) endoparasite :- it is found in inside the host body.

Example

A) malarial parasite
B) Ascaris
C) Taenia solium

3) holoparasites:- it is totally dependent on their host for nutrition.

Example

A) Cuscuta ( amerbel)

4) partial parasite :- which derive only water and Minerals from the host body while prepare their own food by the process of photosynthesis.

Example

A) viscum
B) loranthus

5) brood parasitism:- in which the female of a species lay its eggs in the nest of another animals.

Example :- Koel lay its egg in the nest of crow

competition:- type of negative interaction in which both the interacting species decrease the chance of growth and survival of each other and this compete with each other for common resources like food ,water ,space.

Example

1) flamingos and resident fishes competing for zooplanktons in the lakes of South America

amensalism:- types of negative interaction in which one species is harmed while other species is neither benefited nor harmed

Example

1) antibiotics
2) juglone chemical

neutral interaction:- interaction between the two species neither benefited nor harm eg- interaction between plants and animals.

■ important questions for all competitive exams like CBSE, JAC board, neet, AIIMS

A) short answers type questions

1) what is interspecific interaction
2) what is positive interspecific interaction
3) define mutualism with example
4) define protocooperation with example
5) define Symbiosis with example
6) define commensalism with example
7) define negative inter specific interaction
8) define predation with example
9) what is biological control? give one example
10) define parasitism with example
11) write down three types of parasitism
12) what is brood parasitism ?give an example
13) what do you mean by Amensalism give an example

B) long answer type questions

1) what is inter specific interaction write down in brief with example
2) what is five major types of inter specific interaction write down in brief with example
3) what is parasitism and its types and writes their example

C) multiple choice questions

1) when one population is harmed and the other remains unaffected the relationship is called as

A) Amensalism
B) predation
C) protocooperation
D) parasitism

Ans. A

2) the relationship between a climber and the host corresponds to

A) neutralism
B) predation
C) commensalism
D) mutualism

Ans. B

3) which bacteria is found in roots of legume plants

A) rhizobium bacteria
B) methanogenic bacteria
C) ruminant bacteria
D) nitrifying bacteria

Ans. A

4) which one has Association between two different species is facultative

A) neutralism
B) predation
C) commensalism
D) mutualism

Ans. A

5) which one has Association between two different species is obligatory

A) neutralism
B) predation
C) commensalism
D) symbiosis

Ans. D

6) example of brood parasitism is

A) koel and crow
B) sparrow and pigeon
C) mynah and crow
D) none

Ans. A

7) Lichen is which of the following Association

A) Association between fungi and algae
B) Association between fungi and higher plant
C) Association between algae and bryophytes
D) Association between fungi and bryophytes

Ans. A

8) mycorrhiza is which of the following Association

A) Association between fungi and algae
B) Association between algae and higher plant
C) Association between algae and bryophytes
D) Association between fungi and roots of higher plants

Ans. D

9) which one of following is holo parasite

A) lice
B) leech
C) taenia
D) cuscuta

Ans. D

10) which one of the following is epiphytes

A) fungi
B) algae
C) orchids
D) none

Ans. C

11) Association between hermit crab and sea anemone is which of the following

A) neutralism
B) protocooperation
C) commensalism
D) symbiosis

Ans. B

12) in biological control phenomenon Opuntia plants is controlled by which of the following

A) cochineal insects
B) gambusia fish
C) orchids
D) none

Ans. A

13) which one of the following is partial parasites

A) cuscuta
B) taenia
C) ascaris
D) loranthus

14) which one of the following is ecto parasite

A) bed bugs
B) taenia
C) ascaris
D) malarial parasite

Ans. A

15) orchids is example of which of the following

A) neutralism
B) protocooperation
C) commensalism
D) symbiosis

Ans. C

About the author

Balram Saw

My name is Balram Saw and by profession, I am a lecturer. I did my masters in M.sc Zoology. On this blog, I share all the information related to biology.

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