Types of fruits and their edible parts- Quick revision for CBSE-JAC exams | edible part of fruit | fruits and their edible parts | fruit types of | fruit different types
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Table of Contents
What is a fruit?
A fruit is the seed bearing structure in flowering plants that is form from the ovary after flowering. Fruit define as the seed bearing structure in flowering plants that is formed from ovary after flowering.
What is meaning of the fruit?
Fruits are the means by which flowering plants disseminate into seeds, “in botany what is mean by fruit?”, in botany of fruit is a ripened ovary or carpel that contain seed.
What is pericarp?
Pericarp is outer layer of most of fruits, typically formed from the ovary and generally surrounds the fruit wall. The pericarp has three layers from outer to inner, the epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp.
What are the classification of fruits?
Classification of fruits are are into three main groups:-
2. Aggregate fruits
3. And composite fruits or multiple fruits
What are the types of fruits?
Based on the fertilization of the flower fruit is classified into two fruits types:-
1. True fruits and 2.False fruits
Based on the verities and diversities fruits are classified into following types:-
The types of fruits are are the following:-
1. Simple fruits
2. Aggregate fruits and 3. Composite fruits.
What is true fruits?
True fruits are the fruits forms in the ovary of the flower through fertilization. Examples of true fruit is strawberry, watermelon, lemon, cherry, blueberries and etc.
What is false fruits?
False fruits are define as those fruits, which are formed some other means than ovary such as calyx, thalamus, corolla etc. Examples of false fruits are or false fruit examples are:- Pioneer Apple, Apple, banana, cashews and etc.
Define the simple fruits
Simple fruits reasults from the ripening to fruit of simple a compound ovary in a single flower with only one pistil.
What are the types of dry simple fruits?
The types of dry fruits are:- 1) simple dry fruits and 2) simple fleshy fruits.
What are the types of dry simple fruits?
Types of dry simple fruits and examples are the following:-
2. Capsule:-Brazil nut
3. Caryopsis:-cereal grains including wheat, rice, oats and barley.
5. Fibrous drupe:-coconut and walnut
6. Legume:-bean, pea and peanut.
7. Nut:-beach nut hazelnut
8. Samara:-ash, elm
9. Schizocarp:-carrot seed
10. Silique:- radish seed
What is the simple fleshy fruits?
Simple fleshy fruits are fruits in which part or all the pericarp fruit wall is fleshy at maturity.
What are the types of simple fleshy fruits examples?
Types of simple fleshy fruits with examples are the following:-
1. Berry:- the berry is the the most common type of fleshy fruit, where the entire outer layer of the ovary wall ripens into edible pericarp. Examples of berries are banana, grapes, cucumber and tomatoes.
2. Drupe or stone fruit:- drop is the hard, it is derived from the ovary wall of flower. Examples of drupe are apricot, cherry, mango and plum.
3. Pome:- a fleshy fruit developing from half inferior ovary. Examples of pome are the apples and peers.
What is the aggregate fruit?
The aggregate fruit is a fruit type that develops from the merger of several ovaries that was separated in a single flower.
What are the types of aggregate fruits?
The types of aggregate fruits are:-
What is a multiple fruits?
Multiple fruits are fruiting bodies formed from a cluster of fruiting flowers, the inflorescence, which flower in the inflorescence produces a fruit, and mature into a single mass in which each flower has produced a true fruit
What are the examples of multiple fruits?pineapple, fig, jackfruit and etc are some examples of multiple fruit.
What is an accessory fruit?
An accessoryr fruit is a fruit in which some of the flesh is derived not from the ovary but from adjacent tissues exterior to carpel, alternate terms for accessory fruits are false fruit, spurious fruit, pseudocarp, pseudo fruit.
What are the examples of accessory fruits?
The examples of accessory fruits are the following:-
1. Hypanthium:- apple and pear
2. receptacle:- mulberry, pineapple, strawberry
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Edible parts of fruits
There are different types of fruits like grapes, banana, mangoes, orange, apple, pomegranate, coconut and etc are available and we eat different part of fruits like edible parts of grapes is pericarp with placenta, edible part of Pear is fleshy thalamus and edible part of pomegranate in testa and edible part of guava is pericarp with thalamus and edible part of Banana is mesocarp and endocarp.
Edible part of a fruit:- edible part of a fruit is pericarp, placenta, seed and thalamus, fleshy receptacle, juicy placental hairs, testa, bracts, perianth, cotyledon, endosperm, entire fruits and etc.
Generally in true fruit, ripened ovary wall that develop into pericarp consist of outer exocarp, middle mesocarp and inner endocarp along with seed and placenta.
Some other structure like thalamus or receptacle also develop into fruits in some plants like guava, strawberry and Apple. Thus edible part of a fruit is pericarp, placenta, seed, thalamus, fleshy receptacle, juicy placental hairs, testa, bracts, perianth, cotyledon, endosperm, entire fruits and etc.
Fruits and their edible parts are following:-
● wheat – embryo and endosperm
● mullberry – entire fruit
● almond – endocarp
● bottle gourd – mesocarp and endocarp
● ground nut – cotyledon
● custard apple – pericarp
● cashew nut – fleshy aril
● wood apple – endocarp and placenta
● tomato – entire fruit or epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp along with seed
● jackfruit – bracts and perianth
● papaya – mesocarp
● supari – mesocarp
● orange – juicy placental hair
● lemon – juicy placental hair
● coconut – endosperm
● anjir – fleshy receptacle and achene
● litchi – fleshy aril
● mango – mesocarp
● gauva – pericarp and thalamus
● pomegranate – testa
● pear – fleshy thalamus
● grapes – pericarp with placenta
Edible part of wheat
Wheat is type of dry fruit and their fruit name is caryopsis, the edible part of wheat is endosperm and embryo of seed, seed coat and pericarp of wheat seed is generally removed in different process, so we eat only endosperm and embryo of wheat seed, wheat plants are monocotyledon which contain only embryonic cotyledon that degenerate which time.
Edible part of rice
Rice or paddy is type of dry fruit and their fruit name is caryopsis, the edible part of rice is bran, endosperm and embryo of grain, in white rice bran is removed along with seed coat and pericarp of grain, so we eat only endosperm and embryo of white rice, rice or paddy are monocotyledon which contain only embryonic cotyledon that degenerate which time.
Edible part of maize
Maize is type of dry fruit and their fruit name is caryopsis, the edible part of maize is whole seed, in maize plants seed coat is fused with pericarp that should be removed for making maize floor, so we eat only endosperm and embryo of white maize floor, maize are monocotyledon which contain only embryonic cotyledon that degenerate which time.
Edible part of grapes
Edible part of grapes is pericarp with placenta, grapes is fleshy fruits put in the category of berry fruit, in which entire ovary wall ripened into pericarp, and seed is embedded in fleshy interior of ovary, so edible part of grapes is pericarp with placenta, thus we eat entire fruit of grapes excluding seed. This is a berry fleshy fruit produced from a single flower containing one ovary.
Edible part of papaya
Edible part of papaya is called mesocarp, mesocarp is middle fleshy layer lies between exocarp and endocarp, papaya fruit put in the category of fleshy berry fruit, a berry is a pulpy fruit developing from a single pistil, containing one or more seeds but no true stone, edible part of papaya is mesocarp, outer pericarp and inner endocarp along with seed and placenta should be removed before eating, so we only eat fleshy mesocarp or pulp of papaya fruit.
Edible part of mango
Edible part of mango is called mesocarp, mesocarp of mango is fleshy part of drupe fruit lies between outer exocarp and inner hard endocarp, edible part of mango is fleshy mesocarp, outer skin exocarp and inner hard endocarp along with seed should be removed before eating, so we eat only fleshy mesocarp part of mango.
Edible part of guava
Typically guava belongs to berry fleshy fruit that develop from ripened ovary and thalamus, edible part of guava is pericarp and thalamus, entire part of guava should be eaten excluding seed, pericarp of guava entirely consists of outer exocarp, middle fleshy mesocarp and inner fleshy endocarp, and thalamus is condensed axis of flower from which floral parts arises, in some plant like gauva, thalamus also give rise to fruit, so edible part of guava is pericarp and thalamus excluding seed.
Edible part of banana
Edible part of Banana is called endocarp with less develop mesocarp, Banana is a berry type fruit of large herbaceous flowering plants, consist of exocarp, mesocarp and endocarp, edible part of Banana is endocarp and less develop mesocarp, exocarp or outer skin or peel of banana along with phloem bundle running lengthwise should be removed before eating, mesocarp is usually less developed and seed is absent from it, so edible part of Banana is endocarp and less develop mesocarp.
Edible part of pear
Pear belongs to the fruit types pome and edible part of pear is fleshy thalamus, 1) common name :-pear, 2) Type of fruits:- pome and 3) Edible parts:- fleshy thalamus
Edible part of pomegranate
Pomegranate belongs to the fruit types balastua and edible part of pomegranate is testa, 1) common name :- pomegranate, 2) Type of fruits:- Balastua and 3) Edible parts:- testa.
Juicy testa is the edible part of pomegranate, it is put in the category of true berries fleshy fruits that develop from a single flower with one ovary and typically have several seeds. Edible Part of pomegranate is called Testa that is outer part of seed coat, filled with red, juicy and fleshy seed, epicarp of pomegranate fruit is leathery and hard, middle layer mesocarp form septa that section into different chamber and endocarp cover the seed as papery structure, and seed is modified into juicy fleshy testa which can be eaten. Thus edible part of pomegranate is called as juicy testa.
Edible part of Litchi
Lichi belongs to the fruit types nut and edible part of Lichi is fleshy aril, 1) common name :-Litchi, 2) Type of fruits:- nut and 3) Edible parts:- fleshy aril
Fleshy aril is the edible part of Litchi, it is nut type fruit consist of seed, juicy and fleshy aril which are the modified part of outer covering of seed coat known as testa and outer hard, rigid covering made of pericarp. Litchi aril is rich source of vitamins and minerals and also provide roughage and water. Before eating pericarp of Litchi should be removed and we only eat fleshy aril (edible) excluding seed. Thus edible part of Litchi is called as fleshy aril.
Edible part of fig (anjeer)
This is common fruit name is Fig (anjeer), generally put in the category of fruit types known as syconus and edible part of anjeer is fleshy receptacle and achene
Edible part of coconut
Coconut belongs to the fruit types drupe and edible part of coconut is endosperm, 1) common name :-coconut, 2) Type of fruits:- drupe and 3) Edible parts:- endosperm.
Endosperm is edible part of coconut, it is nuclear type in coconut water and cellular type in coconut white flesh deposited along the wall, both coconut water and coconut flesh are edible, so edible part of coconut is called as endosperm.
Coconut plant is member of palm tree generally grow around in coastal area, their fruit name is drupe which have membranous exocarp, fiberous mesocarp, stony endocarp along with edible coconut flesh and coconut water made from endosperm.
Coconut plant is generally known as tree of life because their all parts have great importance, it provides cooking oil, food, building material, fibres, fuel and Cosmetic and there it has also religious significance.
Morphological nature of edible part of coconut is endosperm, it is nuclear type in coconut water and cellular type in coconut white flesh deposited along the wall at maturity, so coconut water (edible) is nuclear type endosperm and coconut white flesh (edible) is cellular type.
Morphological nature of mesocarp and exocarp in coconut is that exocarp of coconut fruit is membranous and mesocarp is fibrous, both outer exocarp and middle mesocarp commonly known as husk of coconut that is used for making ropes and cloths.
Edible part of lemon
Lemon belongs to the fruit types is hesperidium and edible part of lemon is juicy placental hair, 1) common name :-lemon, Type of fruits:- hesperidium, and Edible parts:- juicy placental hair.
Juicy placental hairs are the edible part of lemon, generally lemon belongs to the citrus family fruit known as Hesperidium. This fruit consists of inner layer of endocarp surrounding the seed, mesocarp is fibrous and outer leathery hard pericarp that cover the entire fruit.
Edible part of orange
1) common name :-orange
2) Type of fruits:- hesperidium
3) Edible parts:- juicy placental hair
Edible part of orange is called juicy placental hairs, orange fruit belongs to the citrus family of fruit name Hesperidium which is modified berry fruit contains leathery hard pericarp, fleshy placental hairs, endocarp and fiberous mesocarp, juicy placental hairs are the edible part of orange, in orange fruit fleshy interior divided in separate section, before eating orange fruit we remove exocarp and seed, so edible part of orange is juicy placental hairs.
Edible part of supari
This fruit common name is supari, put in the category of fruit types known as berry which is developed from single ovary and edible part of supari is mesocarp.
Edible part of jackfruit
1) common name :-jackfruit
2) Type of fruits:- sorosis
3) Edible parts:- bracts and perianth
Perianth is the edible part of jackfruit formed from inflorescence, it is inflorescence around the the Seed, perianth is non reproductive parts of flower developed around the sexual organ which is generally formed by joining of calyx and Corolla, outer spiky skin is yallow in colour generally removed before eating. Thus edible part of jackfruit is called as perianth.
Edible part of tomato
This fruit common name is tomato, put in the category of fruit types known as berry develop from single ovary and
edible part of tomato is known as pericarp which is consist of outer epicarp, middle mesocarp and inner layer of endocarp.
Edible part of wood Apple
This fruit common name is wood apple, put in the category of types of fruit known as amphisaraca and edible part of wood apple is endocarp and placenta.
Edible part of cashew nut
This is common fruit name is cashew nut, put in that category of fruits known as nut and fleshy aril is the edible part of cashew nut which is modification of outer seed coat known as testa.
Edible part of custard apple
This common fruit name is custard apple, composite fruit, put in the category of fruits types known as etaerio of berry and pericarp is edible part of custard apple, which is consist of outer epicarp, middle mesocarp and inner layer of endocarp.
Edible part of groundnut
This is common fruit name is groundnut, put in the category of fruit types known as legume and cotyledon is edible part of groundnut consist of rich source of protein, carbohydrates and oils.
Edible part of bottle gourd
This is common fruit name is bottle-gourd, put in the category of fruit types known as pepo and edible part of bottle gourd is mesocarp and endocarp.
Edible part of almond
This is common fruit name is almond, put in the category of fruit types is drupe and edible part of almond is endocarp.
Edible part of Mulberry
This is common fruit name is mullbery, put in the category of fruit types known as sorosis and edible parts of mullberry is entire fruit.
Edible part of Apple
Fleshy edible part of Apple is thalamus. It is false fruit developed from accessory floral parts rather than ovary, apple fruit put in the category of pome which is simple succulent fruit developed from inferior compound ovary, fruit content inside seed. Thus edible part of Apple is called as thalamus which is generally represents juicy receptacle of flower.
■Types of fruits and their edible parts- Quick revision for CBSE-JAC exams