HIV and AIDS cause, symptom ,treatment and prevention
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
in this article we know about HIV and AIDS causes symptoms treatment and prevention. As we know that it is serious health problem that threatens the entire human population and it is fast spreading incurable disease today. Aids word first notice in United State of America in 1981 and it is disorder of cell mediated immune system of the body.
and there is a reduction in number of helper t cells which stimulate antibody production by the B cells of immune system. this result in loss of natural defence against viral infection. And it is caused by virus name HIV and their full form is human immunodeficiency virus.
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Table of Contents
what is full form of AIDS
Ans. full form of AIDS is acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
what is full form of HIV
Ans. Full form of HIV is human immunodeficiency virus
Discovery of HIV
the virus was first Discover in 1984 AC by American and French scientist independently their names are Robert Gallo and Luc Montagnier respectively. This virus has passed from monkey host into human population in Africa during the 1960 AC.
transmission and cause of HIV infection
HIV virus is transmitted only by contact of infected cells containing blood of patient with the blood of a healthy person as in several process
1) unprotected sexual intercourse without condom within infected partner if there in tissue injury to permit blood contact.
2) use of contaminated needles and syringe to inject drugs and Vaccines
3) use of contaminated razor for shaving
4) use of contaminated needles for boring of pinnae of external external ear
5) transfusion of infected blood and blood product
6) organ transplant, artificial insemination and parturition from mother to baby due to rupture of blood vessels.
7) the sexual route of Transmission account for over 75% of infection.
Type of contacts that do not spread AIDS
1) AIDS is not a contagious disease it does not spread by casual contact
2) AIDS in not spread by handshake
3) AIDS is not spread by body contact in crowded public place ,working ,playing together, sharing telephone ,sharing meals utensils ,clothes ,eating food cooked by an infected person
4) AIDS is not spread by light kissing using same toilet seat and swimming pool
5) AIDS is not transmitted by blood sucking insects such as mosquito
6) AIDS is not transmitted by coughing and sneezing too
7) AIDS is not spread in Healthcare workers friends and family members by touching one another.
Note :- body Fluids with AIDS virus :- AIDS virus has been found in urine ,saliva,breast milk and vaginal secretion but it seems do not to be transmitted by these Fluids unless it gets into a cut.
Structure of AIDS virus
HIV virus is 100 to 140 NM in diameter and it has cylindrical Core single stranded linear RNA and reverse transcriptase enzyme surrounded by glycoprotein coat double lipid membrane and two protein coats. And it is deployed because has two copies of RNA molecules and HIV virus is found in blood in semen it is also known as a retrovirus which means that its genetic material is RNA which can make a DNA copy of itself with the help of reverse transcriptase enzyme.
Type of strains of HIV virus
There are two major strengths of HIV virus HIV -1 and HIV -2 . The HIV -1 is the most widely distributed and more virulent strain both strain infected t cells that bear Surface Protein CD 4 molecules.
Age and sex distribution of AIDS
AIDS has primarily affected young adults in United States of America and far more males are affected than females but in Africa both sexes are affected in equal numbers.
Incubation period of HIV virus
The incubation period of AIDS HIV virus is ranges between 6 months to over 7 years and average is 28 months.
Risk groups due to HIV virus
The includes homosexual, intravenous drug abusers, haemophilia ,recipients of transfusion blood and blood products and hetrosexual sex partner of AIDS patient.
Symptoms caused due to HIV virus and AIDS disease
1) AIDS may form malignant tumors in connective tissue that’s causes Cancer in infected person and leads to death of individual
2) and there is Viral bacterial protozoan and fungal infection of any system of body due to low immunity
3) there are destruction of white blood cells ,damage to brain ,unexplained fever ,unexplained loss of appetite and unexplain loss of weight over a short time, chronic diarrhoea, cough, night sweats ,enlargement of lymph gland, shortness of breath, weakness
4) neurological damage and physiological wasting leads to death of infected person.
5) common symptoms of HIV infection includes fever, lethargy, headaches, rashes pharyngitis and nausea .generally the symptoms appear within 2- 6 weeks weeks of exposure to virus in affected in individual.
Detection and treatment of HIV infection
Generally HIV infection is detected by ELISA that is enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. Medical treatment of AIDS consists of antiviral therapy against causative agent HIV virus and second one is immunostimulative therapy to increase the number of resistance providing cells in the body.
However no specific treatment has been found so far and the mortality from aids is Virtually 100%. Victim of full blown AIDS passion dies within 3 years from infection and currently tuberculosis is the principle killer of HIV positive people .azithmidine, ribovirin and zidovudine drugs are treated.
Prevention and control of HIV infection
1) people particulate only those in high risk group should be educated about Aids transmission ,advantage of using condom danger of sharing needles and virtue of monogamy
2) December 1 is celebrated every year as the world AIDS day to spread information about Aids among the people
3) disposable needles and setting should be used
4) high risk group should refrain from donating blood ,transfusion of infected blood spread AIDS
5) sexual habits should be changed immediately
Position of HIV infection in India
The first case of AIDS from India was reported in Chennai prostitute in 1986