What are parasitic plants explain with an example
hi guys in this article we know about what are parasitic plants explain with an example and what do you mean by parasite and host and know about various example of parasitic plant in this article .the parasitic plants grow and obtained their nutritional requirement from their living organism that is known as host. Parasite completely or partially dependent on their host for food.
Types of parasitic plants
1) Total or Holoparasites
2) Partial or semiparasite
1) holoparasite :- the parasites which are non green and obtain their total food material including organic nutrients water and Minerals from the host body are called as holoparasites and these parasites is totally dependent on their host for obtaining food and they cannot live without host. For example Cuscuta, Orobanche, Balanophora Rafflesia are holoparasite.
2) semiparasite :- these parasitic plants are green and can synthesise their own food but depend on host for absorption of minerals and water supply is known as semi parasite. So these types of parasitic plants partially dependent on other plant for making their own food. For example Loranthus Santalum Viscum
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Again parasitic plants are categorised into according to host
1) total stem parasite
2) partial stem parasite
3) total root parasite
4) partial stem parasite
1) Cuscuta well known as Dodder, Amarbel, Akash bel is common example of total stem parasite. It is stem parasite of many Angiospermic plant like Zizyphus, Citrus, Duranta and Clover.
Seeds of Amarbel germinate in the soil seedlings are long filamentous and without cotyledons the young plants grow and perform circumutation or rotatory movement and they twin around the stem and sometime leaves of host plant. If the host plant is not available the young plant of amarbel will die. For the establishment contact with the host plant the young seedling develop obsorbing organ that is known as haustoria.
Haustoria is modified adventitious root which deeply penetrate into the body of host and vascular tissue of parasites make contact with that of host through these haustoria. The haustoria are metabolic active organs which help in absorption of nutrients and provide the channel for their transportation. When strong connection is established between Amarbel and host plant then mature plant loses its connection with the soil and become totally dependent on their host.
The mature plant of Amarbel is very long filamentous branched pale yellow in colour with small scaly leaves and it can produces bunches of white or pale yellow bell shaped flowers.
2) Viscum is common example of partial stem parasite and their host plant is shrubs and fruit trees. The mature plant of Viscum is is branched with Green Leaves born in pairs attached on each node of stem. Shoot of Viscum is attached to the host by means of haustoria
There is two type of haustorium develop in viscum parasitic plant that is primary haustoria and secondary haustoria .The primary haustorium reaches up to cortex of the host and it sends secondary haustoria which make connection with xylem of host and absorb water and Minerals.
3) Orobanche is common example of total root parasite and that parasitizes on the roots of many angiospermic plant such as mustard tomato potato brinjal. Orobanche parasitic plant have no chlorophyll and the flowers are pinkish or bluish in colour . The tips of roots make haustorial connection with the roots of host and absorb nourishment.
4) Rafflesia is common example of total root parasite and it has about 14 species commonly distributed in Indonesia and Myanmar. The vegetative parts of parasites are highly reduced and represented by cellular filament resembling fungal mycelium. These filaments are embedded in the soft tissue of post root such as Figs. While the flowers emerged out in the form of buds. The flowers of Rafflesia are the largest in the world and they are about 11 kg in weight and 1 metre in diameter.
5) Santalum album ( sandal wood tree ) is common example of partial root parasites and evergreen which grows at many places in South India. The young seedlings of santalum can grow independently upto year but not beyond that . within this period some of the roots develop haustoria which make contacts with the roots of nearby tree like Morinda, Dalbergia, Eucalyptus . They are normally green in colour but depend on host for water and mineral supply.