Disease from rats plague and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cause, symptoms and history and their mode of transmission.
Hi guys in this article we know about disease from rats plague and hantavirus cause, symptoms, history ,plague type and their mode of transmission. Plague is an ancient disease and plague outbreak during the classical time as occurring in many part of North Africa and the Middle East.
they have no much evidence how the transmission is caused, ancient people in bronze age they have no search technology to find plague outbreak. In recent period it is observed that cause of plague outbreak by the discovery of Yersiniea pestis from rates and rates flease. Disease by rat spread all over the world and disease from rates have ancient history.
The great plague pandemic outbreak was treated as plague black death of Europe in 14th century, in which millions of peoples were killed why plague outbreak known as plague Black death.
Table of Contents
Disease from rats
Rat Borne Diseases and disease from rats have ancient history. Most of world affected by rate born disease. Disease by rat spread worldwide. Following are the disease caused from rats biting, rat flease, rat urine and their scratches.
1) Leptospirosis cause from rat urine
2) Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCMV) causes from saliva and rat urine
3) Bubonic plague by rat fleas and rats bites
4) Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome
Disease from rats leptospirosis
Disease from rats is leptospirosis affecting liver and kidney. Disease by rat leptospirosis is an epidemic disease. Rat bites and their scratches can result in disease and rat-bite fever known as leptospirosis. Rat urine is responsible for the spread of leptospirosis in all over the world which can result in infection in liver and kidney damage.
It can also be contracted by handling or inhalation of scat. Complications and infection of these disease include renal and liver failure, as well as cardiovascular problems.
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCMV)
Disease from rat Lymphocytic choriomeningitisis a viral infectious disease, is transmitted through the saliva and urine of rats. Some individuals experience long-term of effects of lymphocytic choriomeningitis simply called as LCMV while others experience only temporary discomfort.
Plague black death
Diseases by rat plague black death is epidemic disease spread all over the world .One of the most historically dangerous rat-borne epidemic diseases is the bubonic plague, also called “Black Plague,” and its variants. Transfer occurs when fleas from the rats bite human beings. Fleas transported on rats are considered responsible for this plague during the Middle in Europe which killed millions of people.
From the transmission of bubonic plague and their variant to typhus and hantavirus, disease from rats infestations can prove harmful to human health.
Disease from rats also causing allergic reaction and rat fleas also are a potential source of allergens. And their droppings, dander and shed hair can cause people to sneeze and experience other allergic reactions which is more harmful
Diseases transmitted by rats
Disease transmitted by rats fall into two categories according to their transmission
1) disease transmitted directly by rats
2) disease transmitted indirectly by rats
disease transmitted directly by rats from exposure to rat-infected feces known as rat poop or rat dropping, urine or bites and they have no require vector transmission and diseases indirectly transmitted to people by an intermediate arthropod vector such as fleas, ticks or mites. There is the following list of diseases or medical conditions are all associated with rats, which are spread all over the world
Disease from Rat poop
Disease from rat poop are transmitted from excrement of Mice And rodents like it’s fecal matter dust particles and urine known as Rat poop or rat dropping. Main rat poop disease are transmitted directly from contact with rat bites and it’s rat dropping. Rat poop disease are Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Leptospirosis, Rat-bite Fever and Salmonellosis.
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
Diseases directly transmitted by Rat bite is
Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome: This is a viral disease that is transmitted by the rice rat. This disease from rat poop hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is spread in one of three ways: inhaling dust that is contaminated with rat urine or rat poop or rat droppings, direct contact with rat feces or urine, and infrequently due to the bite of rat.
Rat poop disease hantavirus pulmonary syndrome mainly spread through the excrement of rate like it’s fecal matter and urine known as rat dropping.
In hantantivirus there is two cases is arises and it is mostly spread from in contact with rat dropping or rat poop. some species of rat is Carriers and some of their species act as transmitter. Some species of rats such as the cotton rat or rice rat are known carriers of hantavirus. And Norway rats and roof rats are not known transmitters of hantavirus.
Victims or people suffering from Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome may be debilitated and can experience difficulty breathing.
Hantavirus is transmitted to humans when they inhale airborne particles from rodent droppings or rat poop urine or carcasses that have been disturbed.
The first symptoms of the hantavirus can be seen and mistaken for the flu. Patients then suffer breathing difficulties that may prove fatal if not treated effectively and immediately.
In order to avoid hantavirus pulmonary syndrome all mouse feces, nest materials and dead rodents must be removed from the home.
Spray suspected areas thoroughly with disinfectant before sweeping to avoid having anything become airborne.
Use gloves to handle rodent carcasses or rat droppings and a respirator must be worn with functioning cartridges. Buildings should be aired out following an infestation.
Not all rodents have been found to carry hantavirus at all . Deer mice, cotton rats, rice rats and white-footed mice are the most common transmitters for hanta virus. However, everyone should use caution in dealing with rodents or rodent infestations and contact a pest control professional.
2) Leptospirosis disease from rats
Leptospirosis is another rat poop disease caused due to bacteria. Rat poop disease leptospirosis that can be transmitted by coming into contact with infected water by swimming and wading or kayaking or by contaminated drinking water. Individuals may be at increased risk of Leptospirosis infections if they work outdoors or with animals and cultivation.
3) Rat-bite Fever: rat bite fever is another rat poop disease it may be transmitted through a bite, scratch or contact with a dead rat and mice
4) Salmonellosis: salmonellosis is another disease transmitted from rat poop or rat dropping by consuming food or water that is contaminated by rat feces bacteria can cause of salmonellosis disease.
Diseases Indirectly Transmitted by Rats
Disease indirectly transmitted by rats is plague outbreak commonly known as black black death and their variant. Another digit in directly transmitted by rats is Colorado Tick Fever and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.
1) Plague: This disease is carried by rats and transmitted by fleas in the process of taking a blood meal. Domestic rats are the most common reservoir of plague.
2) Colorado Tick Fever: This is a viral disease caused by virus that is transmitted by the bite of a tick that has taken a blood meal from a bushy-tailed woodrat.
3) Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: This disease is caused by a parasite that is transmitted to a person by the bite of an infected sand fly that has fed on a wild woodrat.
Plague definition, transmission and symptoms
Plague definition is that plague is serious bacterial infection that’s transmitted primarily by fleas which spread all over the world and their outbreak and sign of evidence of plague had come from bronze age to recent time and affecting the people throughout world and more it epedemic and killed millions of people.
The bacteria that causes plague is Yersinia pestis which lives in small rodents found most commonly in rural and semirural areas of Africa, Asia ,Europe and the United States.
The organism is transmitted to humans who are bitten by rat fleas that have fed on infected rodents or rat or by humans handling infected animals.
Plague is Known as the Black Death during medieval times in Europe outbreak of plague killed millions of people. today plague occurs in fewer than 5,000 people a year worldwide. It can be deadly if not treated promptly with antibiotics.
Plague disease caused due to bacteria are Yersinia pestis have different species of bacteria , according to their variant species have three types.
The most common form of plague results in swollen and tender lymph nodes called buboes and bubonic in the groin, armpits or neck. The rarest and deadliest form of plague affects the lungs, and it can be spread from person to person.
Plague epidemic disease is categorised into 3 category. depending on which part of your body is involved and affected. Signs and symptoms vary depending on the type of plague. and main types of plague are following :-
1) bubonic plague
2) septicemic plague
3) pneumonic plague
Bubonic plague causes symptoms and transmission
Bubonic plague is the most common variety of the plague out break disease. It’s named after the swollen lymph nodes known as buboes that typically develop in the first week after you become infected. Buboes may be appear and situated in the groin, armpit or neck. About the size of a chicken egg and tender and firm to the touch.
bubonic plague symptoms
Bubonic plague symptoms is Buboes may be appear and situated in the groin, armpit or neck. About the size of a chicken egg and tender and firm to the touch. And another symptoms of bubonic plague explain is following:-
1) Sudden rise onset of fever and chills
2) main bhi presence of Headache in forehead
3) affected people may feel fatigue or malaise
Septicemic plague cause and symptoms
Septicemic plague and their epidemic outbreak occurs when plague bacteria grow and increased their population by multiply binary and Multiple Fission in your bloodstream that is known as septicemic plague.
Signs and symptoms of septicemic plague are following :–
1) people suffering from septicemic plague may have rise of fever and chills
2) Extreme weakness in case of septicemic plague.
3) symptoms of septicemic plague may include abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomiting
Bleeding from your mouth, nose or rectum, or under your skin.
4) Blackening and death of tissue that is development of gangrene in your extremities, most commonly your fingers, toes and nose.
Pneumonic plague definition causes and symptoms
Pneumonic plague affects the lungs and their pulmonary system. Pneumonic plague the least common variety of plague but the most dangerous and plague out break because it can be spread from person to person via cough droplets in air. Signs and symptoms can begin within a few hours after infection with bacteria and their symptoms may include
1) person suffering from pneumonic plague have cough problem, with bloody mucus known as sputum
2) affected people feel difficulty in breathing
3) sign of nausea and vomiting
4) other symptoms may include High fever,Headache,feeling weakness and problem of chest pain.
Pneumonic plague out break is very dangerous and progresses rapidly and may cause respiratory failure and shock within two days of infection of bacteria. Pneumonic plague needs to be treated with antibiotics like tetracycline within a day after signs and symptoms first appear, or the infection is likely to be fatal.
When to see a doctor
If you begin to feel ill and have been in an area where plague has been known to occur, seek immediate medical attention and call to your doctor. You’ll need treatment with medication to prevent serious complications or death by pneumonic plague.
In the United States, plague has been transmitted to humans in several western and southwestern states — primarily New Mexico, Arizona, California and Colorado. Worldwide, plague is most common in rural and semirural parts of Africa especially the African island of Madagascar, South America and Central East Asia.
The plague bacterial microorganism Yersinia pestis is transmitted to humans through the bites of rat fleas that have previously fed on infected animals or rat poop or rat dropping like Rats, Mice, Squirrels, Rabbits, Prairie, dogs, Chipmunks and Voles.
The bacteria Y pestis can also enter your body if a break in your skin comes into contact with an infected animal’s blood. Domestic cats and dogs can become infected with plague from flea bites or from eating infected rodents.
Pneumonic plague, which affects the lungs, is spread by inhaling infectious droplets coughed into the air by a sick animal or person.
Risk factors of pneumonic plague
The risk of developing plague is very low. Worldwide, only a few thousand people develop plague each year. However, your plague risk can be increased depending on the area where you live and travel, your job, and your hobbies and age of people and their immunity.
Plague outbreak and transmission
Plague outbreaks are most common in rural and semirural areas that are overcrowded and dense population in city having unhygienic condition ,have poor sanitation and have a high rodent and mice population. The greatest number of human plague infections occur in Africa, especially the African island of Madagascar and Surat city of Gujarat in India. Plague has also been transmitted to humans in parts of Asia and South America.
In the United States, plague is rare, but it has been known to occur in several western and southwestern states — primarily New Mexico, Arizona, California and Colorado.
Veterinarians and their assistants have a higher risk of coming into contact with domestic cats and dogs that may have become infected with plague. People who work outdoors in areas where plague-infected animals are common are also at higher risk of getting plague.
Camping, hunting or hiking in areas where plague-infected animals reside can increase your risk of being bitten by an infected flea.
Complication of plague outbreak
Most people who receive recommended antibiotic treatment survive bubonic plague. Untreated plague has a high fatality rate.
Gangrene. Blood clots in the tiny blood vessels of your fingers and toes can disrupt blood flow and cause that tissue to die. The portions of your fingers and toes that have died may need to be removed by surgery.
Meningitis appear rarely, plague may cause inflammation of the membranes surrounding your brain and spinal cord known as meningitis.
Prevention of plague out break
Plague vaccine is used for cure of plague out break. This vaccine used against Yersinia pestis. Dead bacteria have been used since 1890 but are less effective against pneumonic plague so that recently live vaccines of an attenuated type and recombination protein vaccines have been developed to prevent the plague disease.
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So no effective vaccine is available, but scientists are working to develop one. Antibiotics can help prevent infection if you’re at risk of or have been exposed to plague. Take the following precautions if you live or spend time in areas where plague outbreaks occur:
1) Should be Rodent-proof your home. Remove potential nesting areas of rats, such as piles of brush, rock, firewood and junk. Don’t leave pet food in areas that rodents can easily access. If you become aware of a rodent infestation, take steps to control it.
2) Keep your pets free of fleas and tick. Ask your veterinarian which flea-control products will work best.
3) Wearing gloves. When handling potentially infected animals, wear gloves to prevent contact between your skin and harmful bacteria.
4) Use insect repellent chemical. Closely supervise your children and pets when spending time outside in areas with large rodent populations. Use insect repellent.
History of plague and their transmission
Plague are disease from rats had much historiac knowledge. It is an ancient disease that was described during classical time as a country in North Africa and Middle East of Asia. It had several type of history epidemic infection proof and there is first epidemic outbreak of plague in Pestilence described at striking the philistines in the Biblical book of Sauel 1.
Early existence of plague comes from the discovery of genomic traces of Y. Pestis in the teeth of Neolithic farmer in Sweden dated to roughly about 4900 years ago and from analysis of ancient DNA in the teeth of bronze age humans which indicates Y. Pestis was present in Asia ,Africa and Europe by 3000 and 800 BCE. it was impossible to find outbreak of plague epidemic in ancient time because of lack of Technology.
The first greatest plague outbreak endemic caused disease from rats reported during the reing of the Byzantine emperor Justinian first in the 6th century. according to historian procopius plague outbreak begin in Egypt and move along Maritime trade route striking in Constantinopole in 542. And plague outbreak they killed their resident people 10,000 people had died.
The next great plague outbreak endemic was treated as Black death of Europe in 14th century, and plague outbreak in Europe may killed 3/4 population were died due to black death. About 25 million people were died during black death from all over the world.
Plague arrived in Europe via route of maritime trade routes from Central Asia those are known as Silk Road. The black death most likely to originated in Central Asia or East Asia from where it travel along the Silk Road reaching Crimea by 1347 and from there it was most likely to carried by rat flea living on the black rat that travel on Genoese merchant ships. Black death spreading throughout the Mediterranean basin and reaching Africa western Asia and rest of Europe by Constantinople ,Sicily and other Italian Peninsula.
History of plague in England aises after 2 century attack of black death in 1664 to 1666 in great plague of London and plague outbreak kill about 1 lakh people death
History of plague outbreak in India started in 1994 in the Surat city of Gujarat. Outbreak of Bubonic plague and pneumonic plague in South Central and western India in Mumbai Delhi and Surat from 26 August to 18 October 1994. 693 suspected case and 56 death occurred in Maharashtra due to plague. 488 Cases had been found in Gujarat and 77 died and in Karnataka there is 46 cases, Uttar Pradesh have 10 cases and Madhya Pradesh 4 cases and union territory of India New Delhi have 66 cases.
The first sign of plague outbreak has been seen in in Surat city of Gujarat there is large number of domestic rat were died and infected the people due to bacterial attack of Yersinia pestis. Deputy municipal commissioner of health DMCH for Surat city received a report patient died due to pneumonic plague 52 lost their life in Surat city and highly recommended antibiotic tetracycline should be given to affecting people.
A committee under chairmanship of Professor Vulimiri Ramalingaswami was formed by Indian government to investigate the plague episode in Surat city and in 1995 committee submit their report of the plague epidemic of 1994 to the Government of India and cannot able to find source of trace and also origin of Yersinia pestis.
What is Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome?
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is known as HPS in short form is a serious respiratory disease transmitted by infected rodents and mice through urine, droppings or saliva or rat poop. So hantavirus is rat poop disease and caused disease from rats. Humans can contract the disease when they breathe in aerosolized virus.
HPS was first recognized in 1993 and has since been identified throughout the United States. Although rare, HPS is potentially higher deadly.
Risk factor for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome?
Anyone who comes into contact with rats that carry hantavirus is at risk of HPS. Rats and mice infestation in and around the home remains the primary risk for hantavirus exposure. Even healthy individuals are at risk for HPS infection if exposed to the virus.
Transmission of Hantavirus disease
In the United States, Hantavirus infection is usually spread by inhaling the virus from rat droppling or rat poop, which is in the droppings, urine and saliva of infected rodents. Although uncommon, the virus can also be passed to humans through a rodent bite.
In Southern Nevada the common deer mouse found Peromyscus maniculatus appears to be responsible for the spread of the disease at elevations and hight above 5,000 feet. About 12 percent of the Deer mice that have been tested were found to be infected with the hantavirus.
Other rodents including the cactus mouse, pinon mouse, brush mouse, canyon mouse, and western harvest mouse may also be infected with this virus but in much lower numbers and responsible for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome infection
The virus does not make rats sick, but people who come into close contact with rats may get sick. Even though not all rodents have the virus, it is difficult to properly identify mice; so all rodents should be avoided.
People may get sick when they touch or breathe dust from where there are rodent droppings feces or urine or rat poop. Insect bites will not make you sick and you will not get HPS from another person.
symptoms of hantavirus
People who are sick from HPS may at first think they have the mistake of flu. The difference is that with this virus the breathing problems become worse, the lungs fill with fluid which may cause the breathing difficulty to stop and the person to die. The fatality rate is approximately 50 percent.
Early symptoms of Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome include
Muscle aches especially in the thighs, hips, back and sometimes the shoulders
About half of HPS patients also experience the following symptoms:
Late symptoms begin four to 10 days after initial phase of illness of hantavirus and include:
Shortness of breath
Tightness around chest
Less common symptoms include:
Incubation period of hantavirus
The incubation period is not well known due to the small number of HPS cases. Based on limited information, it appears symptoms may develop between one and five weeks after exposure.
treatment for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome
There is no specific treatment, cure or vaccine for HPS. But some antibiotics are provided, Persons with severe breathing problems are often placed on oxygen and a ventilator. If a person has been around rodents and have symptoms of fever, deep muscle aches and severe shortness of breath they should see a doctor immediately.
Prevention from hantantivirus
We should what can be done to prevent from Honda virus we should do following things
1) Rodent control in and around the home remains the primary strategy for preventing hantavirus infection. Taking general precaution and control you should decrease the chance of disease from rats.
2) Reduce the availability of food sources and nesting sites used by rodents and mice near by inside your home by means we can able to prevent disease from rats.
3) you Keep food including pet food and water covered and stored in rodent-proof metal or thick plastic containers with tight-fitting lids.
Store garbage in rodent-proof metal or thick plastic containers with tight-fitting lids.
Wash dishes and cooking utensils immediately after use and remove all spilled food. Dispose of trash and clutter.
4) activity should be avoided like farming around rodent-infested areas
5) using rodent-inhabited buildings, cleaning should be done barns or outbuildings infested with rodents and mice, disturbing rodent nests and burrows while hiking or camping
Prevent rodents from entering the home
How we prevent rat from entering the home. It can be done by several methodology like
1) we should use steel wool or cement to seal, screen, or otherwise cover all openings into the home that have a diameter of 1/4 inch or larger.
2) Place metal roof flashing as a rat and mice barrier around the base of wooden, earthen, or adobe dwellings up to a height of 12 inches and buried in the soil to a depth of 6 inches.
Place 3 inches of gravel under the base of homes or under mobile homes to discourage rodent burrowing.
3) we can reduce rodent shelter and food sources within 100 feet of the home.
Use raised cement foundations in new construction of sheds, barns, outbuildings, or woodpiles.
When possible, place woodpiles 100 feet or more from the house and elevate wood at least 12 inches off the ground.
4) we should store grains and animal feed in rodent-proof containers.
Homes of people infected with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome or buildings with a great many rats and mice or a lot of rodent droppings feces need to be very carefully cleaned. You should contact your health department for specific instructions.