What blood type is the universal Donor ?

What blood type is the universal Donor ?

In emergency situations like severe bleeding due to some type of accident, motor vehicle accident, fallen from tree, injured during war or someone attack of him or person suffering infection like malaria, blood cancer, anaemia and when your total blood count is low.

In emergency situation when we go to hospital doctors do not always have time to determine a patient’s blood type and their blood group and they are searching for Universal Donor blood type before diagonosis and working to save patients life. If blood universal Donor type available in blood bank or some person and their relatives who have blood universal Donor want to donate to save their life then quickly doctor decide to take his blood and transfused to patients to save their life. In these instances Universal Donor blood type is very important for patient in emergency situation.

But one question there is arises in mind that which blood type is universal Donor ? Yet doctor decide is to take easily and transfer to patients in emergency situation. Doctor knowing his duty and select blood Universal Donor. The universal Donor blood type is O negative (O-) blood group.

What blood type is the universal Donor ?

The universal donor blood type is O negative (O-). Donors having blood group or type O negative (O-) blood have the unique power to help anyone in emergency situation and need of a blood transfusion and help to save patients life.

But question is there how doctor should decide to transfusion only O negative blood group in emergency situation and why O negative blood group is known as blood Universal Donor.

What blood type is the universal Donor ?

What blood type is the universal Donor ?

Blood types

We know that there are different types of antigen on surface of red blood corpuscles who play key factors in deciding and finding of blood types which type of blood you have ? or deciding blood universal Donor type and blood universal receiver type.

Whether a person has blood type A positive (A+) or A negative (A-), blood type B positive (B+) or B negative (B-), blood type AB positive (AB+) or AB negative (AB-) and blood type O positive (O+) or O negative (O-). blood depends on the presence or absence of specific substance on the red blood cells.

There are two types of specific substance known as antigens present on the surface of red blood cells named antigen A and antigen B.

And other type of antigen is presence of RH factor or absence of RH factor. RH factor is present in red blood cells of patients then it is considered to be positive (+) blood group and if RH factor is absent in red blood cells of patients then it is considered to be negative (-) blood types.

The Rh blood group is one of the most complex blood groups known in humans. From its discovery some years ago where it was named after the Rhesus monkey, because RH factor was first found in rhesus monkey then further experiment and Research done on human beings. And discovery of RH factor become second in importance only to the ABO blood group in the field of transfusion medicine.

So there is two types of antigens — antigen A and antigen B and other RH factor deciding what kind of blood types you have.

And other factor responsible for deciding blood type either it will be Universal Donor blood type or Universal receiver blood type that is multiple alleles in ABO blood group systems. Now let us try to understand something about what is multiple alleles

Multiple alleles

In mendelian heredity characters are concerned with genes with two alternative forms or alleles. now it has been noticed that for many characters a genes for a character may exist in many alternative alleles. this forms of a genes are due to mutation of single wild type.

Definition of multiple alleles is when more than two allelic forms of wild types are located on same locus in given pair of chromosomes they are known to compose the series of multiple alleles. Actually grouping of all the different alleles that may be present in a gene pair is defined as systems of multiple alleles and multiple alleles posses the following characteristics

1) multiple alleles are located at the same locus in the chromosomes

2) multiple alleles regulate of particular character

3) process of crossing over is not exhibited by multiple alleles among themselves due to their location on same locus

4) multiple alleles shows the dominant or intermediate phenotypes while wild type of series is usually dominant. wild-type or dominant is represented by capital letters. while other alleles which are recessive are represented by lowercase letter.

And multiple alleles in ABO blood group systems there are group of three alleles regulate relating to the formation of 6 genotypes

Three different alleles in ABO blood group are following

1) Antigen A dominant allele and their genotypes is represented by IA

2) Antigen B dominant allele and there genotype is represented by IB

3) and blood group O have no antigen then it should be represented by iO that is recessive allele

According to Mendelian law of dominance out of two contrasting allelomorphic factor only one Express itself in an individual. The factor that expresses itself is known as dominant alleles while other which has not shown its effect or supress is termed as recessive alleles.

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blood type A :- there is two types of blood group A first is A positive (A+) and second one is A negative (A-). Thus a person having antigen A and presence of RH factor it is considered to be with blood type A Positive (A+) or person having antigen A and absence of RH factor it is considered to be with blood type A negative (A-).

Universal Donor blood type and universal receiver blood type

What blood type is the universal Donor ?

blood type B :- there is two types of blood group B first is B positive (B+) and second one is B negative (B-). Thus a person having antigen B and presence of RH factor it is considered to be with blood type B Positive (B+) or person having antigen B and absence of RH factor it is considered to be with blood type B negative (B-).

blood type AB :- there is two types of blood group AB first is AB positive (AB+) and second one is AB negative (AB-). Thus a person having both antigen A and B and presence of RH factor it is considered to be with blood type AB Positive (AB+) or person having both antigen A and B and absence of RH factor it is considered to be with blood type AB negative (AB-).

blood type O :- there is two types of blood group O first is O positive (O+) and second one is O negative (O-). Thus a person having absence of antigen A or B or both and presence of RH factor it is considered to be with blood type O Positive (O+) or person having absence of antigen A or B or both and absence of RH factor it is considered to be with blood type O negative (O-).

Different blood types and their antibodies

Now understandings blood types and their antibodies. Antibodies are immunoglobulin protein secreted by B lymphocytes in several immune response when foreign particles like pathogens or something chemicals when inter inside our body, it neutralizes of it by the process of antigen antibody interaction. Antigen is foreign particles and antibody is immunoglobulin protein.

antigen-antibody reaction, is a specific chemical interaction between antibodies produced by B cells of the white blood cells and antigens during immune reaction. The antigens and antibodies combine by a process called agglutination.

● In our ABO blood group system person having blood type A have antibody B in their blood

● In our ABO blood group system person having blood type B have antibody A in their blood

● In our ABO blood group system person having blood type AB have no any antibody in their blood

● In our ABO blood group system person having blood type O have antibody A and B in their blood.

Now understand what blood type is universal Donor ? Universal Donor blood type is O negative represented by (O-). And why O negative blood type is considered as blood Universal Donor because it has no antigen A, B and RH factor and when it transfusion to patients then antibody present in blood of patients can not able to recognise for immune response due to absence of antigen in Donor blood group that is O negative blood group. Because antibody is specific to antigen then create immune response and if neither antigen is available nor antibody from B cell secreted. Thus O negative blood group is suitable for all patients which does not create any antigen antibody reaction in patients blood.

And I think you have found your answer what type of blood is the universal Donor correctly you say O negative (O-) blood group is universal Donor blood type.

Q1) what blood type is the universal Donor

A) O positive

B) O negative

C) AB positive

D) AB negative

Ans. option no. (B) you will have right answer what blood type is the universal Donor, O negative is blood Universal Donor type.

Red blood cells from O negative (O-) donors can be transfused to anyone, regardless of the person’s blood type. This is crucial with trauma patients in those early moments of an emergency where doctors will often depend on only O- blood to help save the person’s life.

Once the patient’s blood type is determined, doctors can switch to that blood type for future transfusions.

Universal receiver blood type

Blood type AB either it will be positive (AB+) or negative (AB-) both are known as universal receiver blood type. So universal receiver blood type AB have capable of taking blood from any other person having different types of blood group either it will be positive or negative like A+, A-, B+, B-, AB+, AB-, O+, O-

Why blood type AB known as universal receiver ?

Blood type AB is known as universal receiver because it has no antibody A and B production in their blood and when other blood group like A+, A-, B+, B-, AB+, AB-, O+, O- from other person get donating to person having blood type AB do not causes antigen- antibody immune response because of absence of antibody A and B in blood type AB

And antigen and antibody are always specific to one another in function it means antibody A is always recognise antigen A only not other type of antigen. The AB blood type means that both of the antigens for A and B blood are present. Since both A and B antigens are present in recipient and donor person with AB blood type the recipient won’t reject the blood. The body identifies that blood as “self” rather than “foreign.”

You are probably aware that giving a person a blood transfusion with the wrong type of blood can be lethal, leading to rejection and often death. But you may not be aware that individuals with type AB blood can safely receive blood from a donor with any blood type—O, A, B, or AB. This person who can accept a blood transfusion from any blood type is called a universal recipient.

Some Quick facts about O negative

1) 7% of the world population has O negative (O-) blood.

2)O negative (O-) blood is the blood type in the highest demand.

3) O negative (O-) blood is the preferred blood type for people with underdeveloped immune systems, including premature babies and cancer patients.

4) The preferred donation methods for O negative ( O- ) donors are Double Red Blood Cell and Whole Blood. These two donation types allow O negative O- donors to maximize their donation and make the largest impact for patients in need.

5) While O negative (O-) is the universal blood type for whole blood and red blood cell transfusions, it is not the rarest blood type nor is it the universal blood type for platelet or plasma transfusions.

6) Universal blood type for platelet transfusions
The universal blood type for platelet transfusions is AB positive (AB+). One of the rarest of all blood types, only 3% of the world population has this special blood type. Platelets from AB+ donors can be used for any patient in need. AB+ donors are encouraged to donate Plasma or Platelets.

7) Universal plasma donors
People with AB type blood (positive or negative) are universal plasma donors. Only 4% of the world population has type AB blood. Plasma from AB donors can be given to patients with any blood type, making it extremely important for those in need. AB donors are encouraged to donate Plasma or Platelets.

8) You can maximize your donation to make the largest impact. Schedule a donation appointment and give the gift of life in honor of National Donate Life Month!

9) Donors with type O negative (O-) red blood cells are referred to as universal donors and their red blood cells can be given to any other blood type

10) Donors with type AB positive (AB+) are referred to as universal recipients and can receive red blood cells from any other blood type

11) Donors with type AB negative (AB-) are universal plasma donors and can give plasma to any other blood type.

 

About the author

Balram Saw

My name is Balram Saw and by profession, I am a lecturer. I did my masters in M.sc Zoology. On this blog, I share all the information related to biology.

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