Deficiency diseases of vitamins, proteins, calories and Minerals
If the diet containing an inadequate amount of a nutrient is taken for long time deficiency of that nutrient appear at some disorder in body. The deficiency disorder affects the structure and functions of the body parts which depend on that nutrient directly or indirectly this disorder produced by inadequate nutrient in the diet are called deficiency diseases. Deficiency diseases of vitamins
In this article we know about deficiency diseases of vitamins, proteins, calories and Minerals. The excess of nutrient like protein vitamins and minerals in diet is also harmful for the body.
Table of Contents
The disorder in body produced by inadequate amount of nutrients like protein vitamins minerals in the diet are known as deficiency disease. Deficiency disease is caused by inadequate amount of proteins, calories, vitamins and minerals in the diet. Several types of disease caused due to deficiency of vitamins, deficiency of proteins deficiency of minerals in our body. Deficiency diseases of vitamins
The excess of nutrient in the diet is also harmful for the body. animal fats taken in excess produce cardiovascular disease like disease of heart and blood vessels. large amount of animal protein may cause cancer of large intestine and excess of even some vitamin such as Vitamin A and Vitamin D has an adverse effect on the body.
So the diet should neither have an excess nor deficiency of any nutrients for normal healthy growth of body. Deficiency diseases of vitamins
Deficiency diseases of vitamins
As we know vitamins are organic compound which cannot be produced by the body and must be supplied in a small amount in diet to perform specific biological functions for the normal growth health and maintenance of the body. there are essential to us for proper functioning of different organ.
For proper growth and maintenance of body we have required certain amount of vitamins of several category water soluble vitamins and fat soluble vitamins. Taking of inadequate amount of vitamins in the diet in leads to the situation that is called vitamin deficiency.
As we know vitamins are classified into two category water soluble vitamins and fat soluble vitamins.
The vitamins which are soluble in water is known as water soluble vitamins for example Vitamin B complex vitamin C are water soluble vitamins. the water soluble vitamins are not stored inside our cells, water soluble vitamin must be supplied regularly in diet because they are really excreted in urine and cannot be stored in our body except vitamin B12
Fat soluble vitamins are the vitamins which are soluble in fats are known as fat soluble vitamins. for example vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E vitamin K are fat soluble vitamin.
liver cells are rich in fat soluble vitamins such as vitamin A and Vitamin D. this group of hydrophobic lipid soluble vitamin are not absorbed in body and unless fat digestion and absorption process function normally. their deficiency can cause malabsorptive disease related to vitamin deficiency.
Excess intake of fat soluble vitamin causes increase in concentration that situation is known as hypervitaminosis. And condition of hypervitaminosis in our body is mainly caused due to fat soluble vitamin like vitamin A vitamin D vitamin E and Vitamin K
The absence of deficiency of Vitamin can cause a specific disease known as deficiency disease of vitamin. multiple deficiency caused by lack of more than one vitamins are more common in human beings this condition of Vitamins deficiency is known as avitaminosis.
Deficiency diseases for vitamins caused due to inadequate amount of vitamins like vitamin A Vitamin B complex vitamin C vitamin D vitamin E vitamin K in their diet.
Deficiency of Vitamin adversely effects on body growth and development and maintenance of body. Vitamin deficiency disease decrease your immunity. As we know that vitamins are necessary for normal skeletal development of body maintaining proper vision, healthy, teeth, skin and Eyes.
Deficiency disease for vitamin A
Deficiency diseases of vitamins A. As we know that the chemical name of vitamin A is retinal and it is fat soluble vitamin and it is also called bright eye vitamin. and Vitamin A is required for proper growth and normal skeletal development of body and it play important role in maintaining proper vision and essential for healthy teeth structure and it maintenance of healthy glowing soft skin.
And the source of vitamin A is butter, liver, carrots, kidney pumpkin, Mustard leaves, whole milk, liver oil, tomato, coriander leaves, curd, mangoes, egg ,cheese and papaya. Deficiency diseases of vitamins
Vitamin A is present in the form of carotene in vegetables and fruits which are converted to vitamin A in the body. in general the darker the colour of green vegetables greater is there carotene content.
Deficiency disease of vitamin A causes night blindness and xerophthalmia. Now let us discuss deficiency disease of vitamin A night blindness and xerophthalmia in details.
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What is night blindness?
Night blindness is caused by deficiency of vitamin A. it is the inability of person to see in dim light. it is due to deficiency of rhodopsin in the rod cells of the retina.it is a type of vision impairment also known as nyctalopia. People with night blindness experience poor vision at night or in dimly lit environments.
Although the term night blindness implies that you can not see at night, this is not true the case. You may just have more difficulty seeing or driving in darkness.
Some types of night blindness are treatable while other types are not cure. See your doctor to determine the underlying cause of your vision impairment. Once you know the cause of the problem, you can take steps to correct your vision.
Symptoms of night blindness
The main symptom of night blindness is difficulty seeing in the dark. You are more likely to experience night blindness when your eyes transition from a bright environment to an area of low light, such as when you leave a sunny sidewalk to enter a dimly light.
You are also likely to experience poor vision when driving due to the intermittent brightness of headlights and streetlights on the road.
What causes night blindness?
A few eye conditions can cause night blindness are as follows:-
1) nearsightedness, or blurred vision when looking at faraway objects
2) cataracts, or clouding of the eye’s lens
3) retinitis pigmentosa, which occurs when dark pigment collects in your retina and creates tunnel vision
4) Usher syndrome, a genetic condition that affects both hearing and vision
5) Older adults have a greater risk of developing cataracts. They’re therefore more likely to have night blindness due to cataracts than children or young adults.
5) In rare cases in the United States and india or in other parts of the world where nutritional diets may vary, vitamin A deficiency can also lead to night blindness.
Vitamin A, also called retinol, plays a role in transforming nerve impulses into images in the retina. The retina is a light-sensitive area in the back of your eye.
Who are risk of night blindness ?
People who have pancreatic problem such as individuals who suffering from cystic fibrosis, have difficulty absorbing fat and are at a greater risk of having vitamin A deficiency because vitamin A is fat-soluble. This puts them at greater risk for developing night blindness.
People who have high blood glucose sugar levels or diabetes also have a higher risk of developing eye diseases, such as cataracts.
Different treatment options for night blindness?
If your eye doctor will take a detailed medical history and examine your eyes to diagnose night blindness and report. You may also need to give a blood sample. Blood testing can measure your vitamin A and glucose levels.
Night blindness caused due to nearsightedness, cataracts, or vitamin A deficiency is treatable and curable. Corrective lenses of power, such as eyeglasses or contacts, can improve nearsighted vision both during the day and at night.
Let your doctor know if you still have trouble seeing in dim light even with corrective lenses.
Cataracts is also responsible for night blindness
Clouded portions of your eye’s lens are known as cataracts.
Cataracts can be removed through surgery. Your surgeon will replace your cloudy lens with a clear, artificial lens. Your night blindness will improve significantly after surgery if this is the underlying cause.
Vitamin A deficiency
If your vitamin A nutrition levels are low, your doctor might recommend vitamin supplements. Take the supplements exactly as directed.
Most people don’t have vitamin A deficiency because they have access to proper nutrition.
Genetic conditions that cause night blindness, such as retinitis pigmentosa, are not treatable. The gene that causes pigment to build up in the retina does not respond to corrective lenses or surgery.
People who have cataract retinitis pigmentosa of night blindness should avoid driving at night.
How can I prevent night blindness?
You can’t prevent night blindness that’s the result of birth defects or genetic conditions, such as Usher syndrome. You can, however, properly monitor your blood sugar levels and eat a balanced diet to make night blindness less likely.
Eat foods rich in antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals, which may help prevent cataracts. Also, choose foods that contain high levels of vitamin A to reduce your risk of night blindness.
Certain orange-colored foods are excellent sources of vitamin A
butter, liver, carrots, kidney pumpkin, Mustard leaves, whole milk, liver oil, tomato, coriander leaves, curd, mangoes, egg ,cheese and papaya.
Xerophthalmia is also called dry eye is caused by deficiency of Vitamin A. it is an eye ailment due to lack of secretion of lacrimal gland or tear gland. it may result in bacterial growth thickening, keratinization and ulceration of cornea and even blindness. it is the main cause of blindness among the children in India.
Deficiency disease for vitamin B1
Deficiency diseases of vitamins. Vitamin B1 belongs to the group B complex vitamin and chemical name of Vitamin B1 is thiamine. it is water soluble vitamin. Vitamin B1 helps in carbohydrate metabolism and in function of nerves and muscles its sharpens our appetite and sometimes referred to as appetite vitamin
Deficiency disease for vitamin can cure by taking adequate amount of Vitamin B1 rich food and their source of vitamin B1 or thiamine is milk, pulses ,wheat ,Bran ,seafood, yeast, whole grain ,cereals ,green vegetable ,soybean and dairy product axcept butter.
The deficiency of Vitamin B1 causes Beri Beri disease. Beri Beri is caused by the deficiency of Vitamin B1. it is characterized by loss of appetite ,decrease in weight ,retarted growth degeneration of Nerve cells, muscles atrophy, malfunction of Krebs cycles, heart failure and oedema of hands and legs.
Deficiency disease for vitamin B2
Vitamin B2 belongs to the group B complex vitamin and chemical name of vitamin B2 is riboflavin. it is water soluble vitamin.
Vitamin B2 function it helps in oxidation and utilisation of oxygen, helps in Carbohydrate and protein metabolism and necessary to keep the skin healthy and it help in normal functioning of Eyes.
Deficiency disease of vitamin B2 can be cure by taking adequate amount of Vitamin B2 rich food. And source of vitamin B2 is meat, whole grains and pulses, milk, yeast, liver, peas, eggs, green vegetables and richest source of riboflavin is dried yeast and liver.
Deficiency disease of vitamin B2 is caused due to inadequate intake of Vitamin B2 nutrient in their diet.
The deficiency of Vitamin B2 causes cracking of skin, lips, corner of the mouth that known is Cheilosis, photo phobia that is also called rough eyelids and dark red tongue that is known as the glossitis.
Deficiency disease for vitamin B3
Vitamin niacin is belongs to the the group B complex vitamin. it is water soluble vitamin and one of the most stable vitamins.
it is needed for metabolism of Carbohydrates fats and proteins, it keep the skin healthy, eating give sound mental health, it has most important positive contribution to good nutrition.
and the deficiency of niacin can be cure overcome by taking adequate amount of vitamin B3 having rich source of niacin like milk , fish, legumes, potatoes ,green leafy vegetables, meat, eggs and whole grains.
The deficiency of vitamin niacin causes disease name pellagra.
The disease ppellagra is caused by the deficiency of Vitamin niacin or nicotinic acid. It is characterized by the skin eruptions, swollen lips , digestive disturbance and nervous disorder.
Deficiency disease for vitamin B6
Vitamin B6 belongs to Vitamin B complex group its chemical name is pyridoxine it is water soluble vitamin in fact it is mixture of three substances pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine
And deficiency disease for Vitamin B6 is overcome by taking adequate amount of Vitamin B6 rich food like cereales, grams, molasses, yeast,meat, fish, egg yolk, Rice bran
The deficiency of Vitamin B6 causes sever dermatitis, convulsions and anaemia etc.
Deficiency disease for vitamin B12
Vitamin B12 belongs to the Vitamin B complex group. the chemical name of vitamin B12 is cyanocobalamin. it is also a water soluble vitamin.
it is essential for metabolism of nervous tissues, necessary for formation of healthy blood and proper growth of body and essential for preventing diseases called Pernicious anaemia.
Deficiency disease of vitamin B12 is overcome by taking vitamin B12 rich diet like liver, cheese, milk ,eggs, kidney, fish ,meat are good source of vitamin B12
The deficiency of vitamin B12 causes Pernicious anaemia inflammation of tongue and mouth. Vitamin B12 deficiency disease Megaloblastic anaemia is caused by deficiency of Folic acid and Vitamin B12. it is characterized by the presence of large immature and nucleated red blood cells in blood.
The deficiency of vitamin B12 disease Pernicious anaemia is caused by deficiency of vitamin B12 it is characterized by malformed large immature nucleated red blood corpuscles without hemoglobins and it may prove fatal.
Deficiency disease of vitamin C
Vitamin C is water soluble vitamin and the chemical name of vitamin C is ascorbic acid.
and it function of vitamin C is necessary for keeping teeth gums and joints healthy and it play an important role in normal metabolism of amino acid it help in healing of cuts and wound and give resistant to our body against disease and infection
deficiency disease of vitamin C is overcome by taking Vitamin C rich diet like tomato, mangoes, Orange, pears, pineapple, cabbage ,apples, lemon, lemon,green chillies guava and Amla is good source of vitamin C
Deficiency of Vitamin C causes scurvy. Scurvy disease is caused by the deficiency of Vitamin C ascorbic acid. the blood vessels become fragile due to defective collagen fibre in their wall this causes bleeding in mucous membranes gums and joint and under the skin. falling of teeth and bones and delay healing of wounds are the other systems of scurvy.
Deficiency disease for vitamin D
Vitamin D is fat soluble vitamin is also called calciferol. and it is formed in the skin under the action of sunshine
functions of vitamin D its keep the bones and teeth healthy it helps in utilisation of calcium and phosphorus molecules
deficiency of Vitamin D occurred when we not take adequate amount of vitamin D from food resources like cod liver oil ,butter ,milk ,egg yolk . deficiency of vitamin D causes rickets. exposure to sunlight for what provides cheap methods of Production of Vitamin D in the body itself
The deficiency of vitamin D in body causes disease name rickets in children and osteomalacia in adult. this disease are caused by deficiency of vitamin D or calciferol .
Disease rickets affects the children born become thin soft weak due to poor deposition of calcium and phosphorus. long bones become deformed,wrist, elbow and knee joint have painful swelling
and in osteomalacia affect the adult it is characterized by weak bones liable to easy fracture pelvis become deformed due to body weight.
Deficiency disease for vitamin K
Vitamin K is fat soluble vitamin chemical name of vitamin K is phylloquinone it helps in clotting of blood and prevent hemorrhage and the rich source of vitamin K is cereales and green leafy vegetables
Due to deficiency of Vitamin K in deit causing bleeding disease that is caused by deficiency of Vitamin K. it is characterized by delay and faulty blood clotting causing excessive bleeding. this disease should be distinguish from haemophilia heredity disease caused by inability to synthesise some coagulating factor.
Deficiency disease for minerals
A small amount of mineral composition is also required for healthy growth of the body some of the vital minerals are potassium, sodium, calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc and Iodine.
Microcytic anaemia is caused by Iron deficiency it is characterized by reduced number and size of RBC and reduce haemoglobin content.
Sprue disease is caused by deficiency of Folic acid its symptoms include ulceration of mouth, inflammation of bowel, inability to absorb special fats molecules weekens and anaemia and diarrhoea.
Caries disease is caused by deficiency of flourine. it is characterized by cavity in the teeth.
Goitre it is caused by deficiency of iodine 18 balls enlargement of thyroid glands.
Malnutrition means taking diet lacking one or more essential nutrients essential fatty acids essential amino acids Minerals and vitamins.
Malnutrition is more common than undernourishment in human. it is possible that an overnourished person may also be malnourished. the most common type of nutrition in human is protein deficiency. it’s occurs in the regions where Food Supply is inadequate the victims are usually children who survive retarded physical and even mental development.
Deficiency disease for protein
Deficiency in protein in diet leads to protein deficiency disease and it is also of malnutrition and common found in children who have not taking adequate amount of protein in their diet. Most common deficiency disease for protein is kwashiorkor and it is more common in children.
Kwashiorkor is protein deficiency disease it is the most widely spread kind of malnutrition it commonly affects infants and children between 1 to 3 years of age
Symptoms of kwashiorkor
The common symptoms of kwashiorkor cause are underweight ,stunted growth, poor brain development, loss of appetite, anaemia protruding belly, Slender legs and bulging eyes, oedema of lower legs and face and change in skin and hair colour also occur in kwashiorkor.
Cause of kwashiorkor
The basic causes of disease kwashiorkor are protein deficient or inadequate died due to ignorance and poverty.
infection diseases such as diarrhoea ,measles, respiratory infections intestinal worms, which weaken the child. There are some contributory factors for the disease these are ill spacing of children large family poor, maternal health, early termination of breastfeeding, late introduction of supplementary diet and adverse practices of child rearing such as use of over diluted cows milk.
Cure of kwashiorkor
The proteins are building foods and are essential for growth and repair of tissues and also for body defence therefore adequate amount of protein must be present in the diet.
for normal health daily diet should contain one gram of protein per kg body weight in the case of adults and two grams of protein per kg body weight in case of growing children. the source of proteins are cereals pulses meatt fish, milk ,cheese, leafy vegetables ,groundnuts, please and Beans.
Deficiency disease for calorie
Marasmus is also malnutrition disease. And marasmus is caused due to deficiency of calorie and protein marasmus is formed of prolonged protein energy malnutrition known as PEM. it effect infants under one year of age
Causes of marasmus
Marasmus is caused by simultaneous deficiency of protein and total food calorific value. it is deficiency of nutrients it affects the Infant if mother milk is replaced too early with food having low protein content and caloric value this often happen when mother conceives before her infant is ready for weaning.
Symptoms of marasmus
Due to protein deficient diet store, fats and tissues proteins are used to source of energy. This impairs physical growth and retard mental development.
Subcutaneous fat disappears, ribs become very prominent ,Limb become thin and skin become dry ,thin and wrinkled.
There is emaciation and loss of weight. Digestion and absorption of food stop due to atrophy of digestive glands and this leads to diarrhoea there is no oedema characteristics of kwashiorkor.
Cure of calorie deficient disease
Diet with a required protein and proper calorific value should be given to infants.
Sever malnutrition impairs immune systems and makes the victims very sucesptible people to respiratory and gastrointestinal infection and malnutrition with immunodeficiency and infection is the world’s leading cause of infant and child death.